Readings in Computational Stemmatology

Introduction

What follows is a to-do list in the form of a (thin, unsatisfying) bibliographical essay. Watch this space: the essay will, circumstances permitting, grow over time as I collect references and record brief remarks on a few of them. I have a lot to add and it will take time to dump my private list of resources into something worthwhile, still longer to find more resources, and even longer still to say anything sensible about them. Eventually---remember, circumstances permitting---this page may be of use to someone other than me.

You can find all the references on this page collected at the bottom of this page. You can find my complete bibtex file here.

If you see an especially glaring error or omission, please feel free to let me know at chris@chrisyoung.net.

Textual Criticism and Stemmatology

An accessible and engaging (non-technical) introduction to the whole world of textual criticism (and more) can be found in:

Leighton D Reynolds and Nigel G Wilson Scribes and Scholars (Cambridge University Press, 1974).

Although scholars have struggled to establish texts on a solid foundation, Lachmann, working in the second half of the 19th Century represented a significant leap forward in rigour. Lachmann's contribution has been reviewed in the following book, whose recent translation from the Italian we owe to Glenn Most, who must never sleep:

Sebastiano Timpanaro The Genesis of Lachmann’s Method, trans. Glenn Most (University of Chicago Press, 2005).

Introductions to the practice of textual criticism include:

Paul Maas Textual Criticism (Clarendon Press, 1958).

Martin L West Textual Criticism and Editorial Technique (Springer, 1973).

The following book was kindly recommended to me by a correspondent:

Paolo Trovato Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Lachmann’s Method (Libreriauniversitaria. it edizioni, 2014).

Other notable early work includes

Alfred E Housman “The Application of Thought to Textual Criticism,” in Proceedings of the Classical Association, vol. 18, 1921, 67–84.

which is a frontal attack on the mechanical aspects of Lachmann's method. The other notable early attack on Lachmann is due to:

Joseph Bédier La Tradition Manuscrite Du Lai de L’ombre: Réflexions Sur L’art d’éditer Les Anciens Textes (H. Champion, 1929).

Introductions to the practice of textual criticism include:

Maas Textual Criticism.

West Textual Criticism and Editorial Technique.

Both books are starting to show their age, the Maas in particular. But both are worth reading, including the Maas, which is a little gem of a book summing up the hard won insights of a true master. The West has a deeper discussion of the phenomenon of contamination, if I recall, and is a great read too.

And I recently picked up this odd-sounding book, but haven't gotten around to it yet:

Sebastiano Timpanaro and Kate Soper The Freudian Slip: Psychoanalysis and Textual Criticism, trans. Kate Soper (NLB London, 1976).

Note that Maas is as controversial as he is influential. For a review of the controversy and the influence, see Chapter 2 of

Barbara Bordalejo “The Phylogeny of the Order in the Canterbury Tales” (PhD thesis, New York University, Graduate School of Arts; Science, 2003).

which is also available here.

Computational Stemmatology

The field of computational/mathematical stemmatology has flourished in recent years. An early paper on the mathematics of manuscript descent was also important in the development of modern phylogenetics:

Peter Buneman “The Recovery of Trees from Measures of Dissimilarity,” in Mathematics the the Archeological and Historical Sciences, ed. D.G. Kendall and P. Tautu (Edinburgh University Press, 1971), 387–395.

A trio of papers by Flight in the early 1990s outlines his own approach:

Colin Flight “How Many Stemmata?” Manuscripta 34, no. 2 (1990): 122–128.

Colin Flight “Stemmatic Theory and the Analysis of Complicated Traditions,” Manuscripta 36, no. 1 (1992): 37–52.

Colin Flight “A Complete Theoretical Framework for Stemmatic Analysis,” Manuscripta 38, no. 2 (1994): 95–115.

This work seems to have been mostly ignored in subsequent work on the subject. To do: check if this is the right attitude.

An important early spur to the development of the field was a challenge issued in 1991, which is reviewed in:

Peter MW Robinson and Robert J O’Hara “Report on the Textual Criticism Challenge 1991,” Bryn Mawr Classical Review 3, no. 4 (1992): 331–337.

A sensible first step in the development of algorithms and techniques for handling manuscript traditions is probably to generate artificial traditions to various specifications so that we can observe how well the techniques fare under different conditions (e.g., levels of contamination, mss loss, etc.).

This is not an original idea. A friend informs me that Pasquali mentions the Kantorowicz had the idea in 1912: "He asked a batch of his students to make copies of a Latin document, and his task was to edit it properly; his conclusion was to stress how fallible this process is." The idea has been carried forward in more recent work, as the following papers make clear:

Matthew Spencer et al. “Phylogenetics of Artificial Manuscripts,” Journal of Theoretical Biology 227, no. 4 (2004): 503–511.

Philippe V Baret et al. “Testing Methods on an Artificially Created Textual Tradition,” Status: Published (2006).

Teemu Roos and Tuomas Heikkilä “Evaluating Methods for Computer-Assisted Stemmatology Using Artificial Benchmark Data Sets,” Literary and Linguistic Computing 24, no. 4 (2009): 417–433.

See also the discussion here.

A trove of interesting papers can be found in:

Pieter Van Reenen, August den Hollander, and Margot van Mulken Studies in Stemmatology Ii (John Benjamins Publishing, 2004).

These include, but are not limited to:

CJ Howe et al. “Parallels Between Stemmatology and Phylogenetics,” Studies in Stemmatology II 2 (2004): 3.

Gerd Mink “Problems of a Highly Contaminated Tradition: The New Testament,” Studies in Stemmatology II 2 (2004): 13.

Ulrich Schmid “Genealogy by Chance! On the Significance of Accidental,” Studies in Stemmatology II (2004): 127.

E Wattel “Constructing Initial Binary Trees in Stemmatology,” Studies in Stemmatology II 2 (2004): 145.

Matthew Spencer et al. “The Effects of Weighting Kinds of Variants,” Studies in Stemmatology II 2 (2004): 227.

I list the remaining papers in this category in chronological order:

Georgette Silva and Harold Love “The Identification of Text Variants by Computer,” Information Storage and Retrieval 5, no. 3 (1969): 89–108.

Robert J O’Hara and Peter Robinson “Computer-Assisted Methods of Stemmatic Analysis,” Occasional Papers of the Canterbury Tales Project 1, no. 1993 (1993): 53–74.

Håkon K Gjessing and Richard H Pierce “A Stochastic Model for the Presence/Absence of Readings in Nirstigningar Saga,” World Archaeology 26, no. 2 (1994): 268–294.

Ben J Salemans “Building Stemmas with the Computer in a Cladistic, Neo-Lachmannian, Way: The Case of Fourteen Text Versions of Lanseloet van Denemerken; Een Wetenschappelijke Proeve Op Het Gebied van de Letteren” (2000).

Howe et al. “Parallels Between Stemmatology and Phylogenetics.”

Mink “Problems of a Highly Contaminated Tradition.”

Schmid “Genealogy by Chance! On the Significance of Accidental.”

Spencer et al. “The Effects of Weighting Kinds of Variants.”

Catherine Eagleton and Matthew Spencer “Copying and Conflation in Geoffrey Chaucer’s Treatise on the Astrolabe: A Stemmatic Analysis Using Phylogenetic Software,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 37, no. 2 (2006): 237–268.

Tara Andrews “Prolegomena to a Critical Edition of the Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa, with a Discussion of Computer-Aided Methods Used to Edit the Text,” Status: Published (2009).

A number of resources for textual criticism are online:

[http://www.textualscholarship.org/](http://www.textualscholarship.org/] (the source of some of the references on this page).

Interedition

Centre for Manuscript Genetics

European Society for Textual Scholarship

I list the remaining items in this category in chronological order:

Silva and Love “The Identification of Text Variants by Computer.”

O’Hara and Robinson “Computer-Assisted Methods of Stemmatic Analysis.”

Gjessing and Pierce “A Stochastic Model for the Presence/Absence of Readings in Nirstigningar Saga.”

Peter MW Robinson and Robert J O’Hara “Cladistic Analysis of an Old Norse Manuscript Tradition,” Research in Humanities Computing 4 (1996): 115–137.

Salemans “Building Stemmas with the Computer in a Cladistic, Neo-Lachmannian, Way.”

Linne R Mooney et al. “Stemmatic Analysis of Lydgate’s Kings of England: A Test Case for the Application of Software Developed for Evolutionary Biology to Manuscript Stemmatics,” Revue d’histoire Des Textes 31 (2001): 275–297.

Matthew Spencer, Klaus Wachtel, and Christoper J Howe “The Greek Vorlage of the Syra Harclensis: A Comparative Study on Method in Exploring Textual Genealogy,” TC: A Journal of Biblical Textual Criticism 7 (2002): 8–2.

Matthew Spencer et al. “How Reliable Is a Stemma? An Analysis of Chaucer’s Miller’s Tale,” Literary and Linguistic Computing 18, no. 4 (2003): 407–422.

Howe et al. “Parallels Between Stemmatology and Phylogenetics.”

Mink “Problems of a Highly Contaminated Tradition.”

Peter Robinson “Making Electronic Editions and the Fascination of What Is Difficult,” Linguistica Computazionale (2004): 20–21.

Schmid “Genealogy by Chance! On the Significance of Accidental.”

Spencer et al. “The Effects of Weighting Kinds of Variants.”

Matthew Spencer and Christopher Howe “Article: Collating Texts Using Progressive Multiple Alignment,” Computers and the Humanities 38, no. 3 (2004): 253–270.

Matthew Spencer, Klaus Wachtel, and Christopher J Howe “Representing Multiple Pathways of Textual Flow in the Greek Manuscripts of the Letter of James Using Reduced Median Networks,” Computers and the Humanities 38, no. 1 (2004): 1–14.

Julien Bourdaillet and Jean-Gabriel Ganascia “Practical Block Sequence Alignment with Moves.” LATA (2007): 199–210.

William Robins “Editing and Evolution,” Literature Compass 4, no. 1 (2007): 89–120.

Heather F Windram et al. “Dante’s Monarchia as a Test Case for the Use of Phylogenetic Methods in Stemmatic Analysis,” Literary and Linguistic Computing 23, no. 4 (2008): 443–463.

Andrews “Prolegomena to a Critical Edition of the Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa, with a Discussion of Computer-Aided Methods Used to Edit the Text.”

Desmond Schmidt and Robert Colomb “A Data Structure for Representing Multi-Version Texts Online,” International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 67, no. 6 (2009): 497–514.

Desmond Schmidt “Merging Multi-Version Texts: A General Solution to the Overlap Problem” (2009), http://www.balisage.net/Proceedings/vol3/print/Schmidt01/BalisageVol3-Schmidt01.html.

Ronald H Dekker and Gregor Middell “Computer-Supported Collation with Collatex: Managing Textual Variance in an Environment with Varying Requirements,” in Supporting Digital Humanities: Conference Proceedings, 2011.

Teemu Roos and Yuan Zou “Analysis of Textual Variation by Latent Tree Structures,” in Data Mining (Icdm), 2011 Ieee 11th International Conference on (IEEE, 2011), 567–576.

Tara Andrews et al. “Analyzing Manuscript Traditions Using Constraint-Based Data Mining,” in ECAI 2012: 20th European Conference or Artificial Intelligence, 2012.

Christopher J Howe, Ruth Connolly, and Heather F Windram “Responding to Criticisms of Phylogenetic Methods in Stemmatology,” SEL Studies in English Literature 1500-1900 52, no. 1 (2012): 51–67.

Tara L Andrews and Caroline Macé “Beyond the Tree of Texts: Building an Empirical Model of Scribal Variation Through Graph Analysis of Texts and Stemmata,” Literary and Linguistic Computing 28, no. 4 (2013): 504–521.

Mohamadou Nassourou Computer-Supported Textual Criticism: Theory, Automatic Reconstruction of an Archetype (BoD–Books on Demand, 2013).

Armin Hoenen “Das Artifizielle Manuskriptkorpus Tascfe,” in Accepted in the Proceedings of the Jahrestagung Der Digital Humanities Im Deutschsprachigen Raum, 2015.

Armin Hoenen “Simulating Misreading,” in Natural Language Processing and Information Systems (Springer International Publishing, 2015), 385–389.

Armin Hoenen and Robert-Mayer Strasse “Lachmannian Archetype Reconstruction for Ancient Manuscript Corpora” (2015).

Tools

Manuscripts often contain information that is both genealogically relevant and tricky to capture. A few works that address this side of the problem:

David R Maddison, David L Swofford, and Wayne P Maddison “NEXUS: An Extensible File Format for Systematic Information,” Systematic Biology 46, no. 4 (1997): 590–621.

The Interedition Github page contains a number of repositories for projects dealing with textual criticism, including especially the collatex project.

Juxta "is an open-source tool for comparing and collating multiple witnesses to a single textual work." Its source is available on github (desktop, web service).

Phylogenetics

A rather mathematically demanding introduction to Phylogenetics is:

Charles Semple and Mike A Steel Phylogenetics, vol. 24 (Oxford University Press, 2003).

An introduction to phylogenetics which succeeds in being less intimidating without apparent sacrifice of mathematical rigour is:

Daniel H Huson, Regula Rupp, and Celine Scornavacca Phylogenetic Networks: Concepts, Algorithms and Applications (Cambridge University Press, 2010).

As the book's title suggests, its emphasis is on phylogenetic networks as opposed to simply trees, which should make it of special interest of stemmatologists.

And speaking of phylogenetic networks, don't miss The Genealogical World of Phylogenetic Networks, a blog that is chock full of references and interesting posts.

A random selection of papers I've come across follows, to be structured and commented on later:

Hans-Jürgen Bandelt and Andreas WM Dress “Split Decomposition: A New and Useful Approach to Phylogenetic Analysis of Distance Data,” Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 1, no. 3 (1992): 242–252.

Daniel H Huson, Scott M Nettles, and Tandy J Warnow “Disk-Covering, a Fast-Converging Method for Phylogenetic Tree Reconstruction,” Journal of Computational Biology 6, nos. 3-4 (1999): 369–386.

Korbinian Strimmer and Arndt Von Haeseler “Likelihood-Mapping: A Simple Method to Visualize Phylogenetic Content of a Sequence Alignment,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 94, no. 13 (1997): 6815–6819.

Thomas R Hagedorn “Determining the Number and Structure of Phylogenetic Invariants,” Advances in Applied Mathematics 24, no. 1 (2000): 1–21.

Louis J Billera, Susan P Holmes, and Karen Vogtmann “Geometry of the Space of Phylogenetic Trees,” Advances in Applied Mathematics 27, no. 4 (2001): 733–767.

Oliver Bastert et al. “Landscapes on Spaces of Trees,” Applied Mathematics and Computation 131, no. 2 (2002): 439–459.

Olivier Gascuel Mathematics of Evolution and Phylogeny (Oxford University Press, 2005).

KAREN Vogtmann “Geodesics in the Space of Trees,” 2007.

Benedict Paten et al. “A Unifying Parsimony Model of Genome Evolution,” arXiv Preprint arXiv:1303.2246 (2013).

Daniel H Huson and David Bryant “Application of Phylogenetic Networks in Evolutionary Studies,” Molecular Biology and Evolution 23, no. 2 (2006): 254–267.

Complete List of References

Andrews, Tara. “Prolegomena to a Critical Edition of the Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa, with a Discussion of Computer-Aided Methods Used to Edit the Text.” Status: Published (2009).

Andrews, Tara L, and Caroline Macé. “Beyond the Tree of Texts: Building an Empirical Model of Scribal Variation Through Graph Analysis of Texts and Stemmata.” Literary and Linguistic Computing 28, no. 4 (2013): 504–521.

Andrews, Tara, Hendrik Blockeel, Bart Bogaerts, Maurice Bruynooghe, Marc Denecker, Stef De Pooter, Caroline Macé, and Jan Ramon. “Analyzing Manuscript Traditions Using Constraint-Based Data Mining.” In ECAI 2012: 20th European Conference or Artificial Intelligence, 2012.

Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen, and Andreas WM Dress. “Split Decomposition: A New and Useful Approach to Phylogenetic Analysis of Distance Data.” Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 1, no. 3 (1992): 242–252.

Baret, Philippe V, Caroline Macé, Peter Robinson, Catharina Peersman, R Mazza, Jacques Noret, E Wattel, et al. “Testing Methods on an Artificially Created Textual Tradition.” Status: Published (2006).

Bastert, Oliver, Dan Rockmore, Peter F Stadler, and Gottfried Tinhofer. “Landscapes on Spaces of Trees.” Applied Mathematics and Computation 131, no. 2 (2002): 439–459.

Bédier, Joseph. La Tradition Manuscrite Du Lai de L’ombre: Réflexions Sur L’art d’éditer Les Anciens Textes. H. Champion, 1929.

Billera, Louis J, Susan P Holmes, and Karen Vogtmann. “Geometry of the Space of Phylogenetic Trees.” Advances in Applied Mathematics 27, no. 4 (2001): 733–767.

Bordalejo, Barbara. “The Phylogeny of the Order in the Canterbury Tales.” PhD thesis, New York University, Graduate School of Arts; Science, 2003.

Bourdaillet, Julien, and Jean-Gabriel Ganascia. “Practical Block Sequence Alignment with Moves.” LATA (2007): 199–210.

Buneman, Peter. “The Recovery of Trees from Measures of Dissimilarity.” In Mathematics the the Archeological and Historical Sciences, edited by D.G. Kendall and P. Tautu, 387–395. Edinburgh University Press, 1971.

Dekker, Ronald H, and Gregor Middell. “Computer-Supported Collation with Collatex: Managing Textual Variance in an Environment with Varying Requirements.” In Supporting Digital Humanities: Conference Proceedings, 2011.

Eagleton, Catherine, and Matthew Spencer. “Copying and Conflation in Geoffrey Chaucer’s Treatise on the Astrolabe: A Stemmatic Analysis Using Phylogenetic Software.” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 37, no. 2 (2006): 237–268.

Flight, Colin. “A Complete Theoretical Framework for Stemmatic Analysis.” Manuscripta 38, no. 2 (1994): 95–115.

———. “How Many Stemmata?” Manuscripta 34, no. 2 (1990): 122–128.

———. “Stemmatic Theory and the Analysis of Complicated Traditions.” Manuscripta 36, no. 1 (1992): 37–52.

Gascuel, Olivier. Mathematics of Evolution and Phylogeny. Oxford University Press, 2005.

Gjessing, Håkon K, and Richard H Pierce. “A Stochastic Model for the Presence/Absence of Readings in Nirstigningar Saga.” World Archaeology 26, no. 2 (1994): 268–294.

Hagedorn, Thomas R. “Determining the Number and Structure of Phylogenetic Invariants.” Advances in Applied Mathematics 24, no. 1 (2000): 1–21.

Hoenen, Armin. “Das Artifizielle Manuskriptkorpus Tascfe.” In Accepted in the Proceedings of the Jahrestagung Der Digital Humanities Im Deutschsprachigen Raum, 2015.

———. “Simulating Misreading.” In Natural Language Processing and Information Systems, 385–389. Springer International Publishing, 2015.

Hoenen, Armin, and Robert-Mayer Strasse. “Lachmannian Archetype Reconstruction for Ancient Manuscript Corpora” (2015).

Housman, Alfred E. “The Application of Thought to Textual Criticism.” In Proceedings of the Classical Association, 18:67–84, 1921.

Howe, Christopher J, Ruth Connolly, and Heather F Windram. “Responding to Criticisms of Phylogenetic Methods in Stemmatology.” SEL Studies in English Literature 1500-1900 52, no. 1 (2012): 51–67.

Howe, CJ, Adrian Barbrook, Linne Mooney, and Peter Robinson. “Parallels Between Stemmatology and Phylogenetics.” Studies in Stemmatology II 2 (2004): 3.

Huson, Daniel H, and David Bryant. “Application of Phylogenetic Networks in Evolutionary Studies.” Molecular Biology and Evolution 23, no. 2 (2006): 254–267.

Huson, Daniel H, Scott M Nettles, and Tandy J Warnow. “Disk-Covering, a Fast-Converging Method for Phylogenetic Tree Reconstruction.” Journal of Computational Biology 6, nos. 3-4 (1999): 369–386.

Huson, Daniel H, Regula Rupp, and Celine Scornavacca. Phylogenetic Networks: Concepts, Algorithms and Applications. Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Maas, Paul. Textual Criticism. Clarendon Press, 1958.

Maddison, David R, David L Swofford, and Wayne P Maddison. “NEXUS: An Extensible File Format for Systematic Information.” Systematic Biology 46, no. 4 (1997): 590–621.

Mink, Gerd. “Problems of a Highly Contaminated Tradition: The New Testament.” Studies in Stemmatology II 2 (2004): 13.

Mooney, Linne R, Adrian C Barbrook, Christopher J Howe, and Matthew Spencer. “Stemmatic Analysis of Lydgate’s Kings of England: A Test Case for the Application of Software Developed for Evolutionary Biology to Manuscript Stemmatics.” Revue d’histoire Des Textes 31 (2001): 275–297.

Nassourou, Mohamadou. Computer-Supported Textual Criticism: Theory, Automatic Reconstruction of an Archetype. BoD–Books on Demand, 2013.

O’Hara, Robert J, and Peter Robinson. “Computer-Assisted Methods of Stemmatic Analysis.” Occasional Papers of the Canterbury Tales Project 1, no. 1993 (1993): 53–74.

Paten, Benedict, Daniel R Zerbino, Glenn Hickey, and David Haussler. “A Unifying Parsimony Model of Genome Evolution.” arXiv Preprint arXiv:1303.2246 (2013).

Reynolds, Leighton D, and Nigel G Wilson. Scribes and Scholars. Cambridge University Press, 1974.

Robins, William. “Editing and Evolution.” Literature Compass 4, no. 1 (2007): 89–120.

Robinson, Peter. “Making Electronic Editions and the Fascination of What Is Difficult.” Linguistica Computazionale (2004): 20–21.

Robinson, Peter MW, and Robert J O’Hara. “Cladistic Analysis of an Old Norse Manuscript Tradition.” Research in Humanities Computing 4 (1996): 115–137.

———. “Report on the Textual Criticism Challenge 1991.” Bryn Mawr Classical Review 3, no. 4 (1992): 331–337.

Roos, Teemu, and Tuomas Heikkilä. “Evaluating Methods for Computer-Assisted Stemmatology Using Artificial Benchmark Data Sets.” Literary and Linguistic Computing 24, no. 4 (2009): 417–433.

Roos, Teemu, and Yuan Zou. “Analysis of Textual Variation by Latent Tree Structures.” In Data Mining (Icdm), 2011 Ieee 11th International Conference on, 567–576. IEEE, 2011.

Salemans, Ben J. “Building Stemmas with the Computer in a Cladistic, Neo-Lachmannian, Way: The Case of Fourteen Text Versions of Lanseloet van Denemerken; Een Wetenschappelijke Proeve Op Het Gebied van de Letteren” (2000).

Schmid, Ulrich. “Genealogy by Chance! On the Significance of Accidental.” Studies in Stemmatology II (2004): 127.

Schmidt, Desmond. “Merging Multi-Version Texts: A General Solution to the Overlap Problem” (2009). http://www.balisage.net/Proceedings/vol3/print/Schmidt01/BalisageVol3-Schmidt01.html.

Schmidt, Desmond, and Robert Colomb. “A Data Structure for Representing Multi-Version Texts Online.” International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 67, no. 6 (2009): 497–514.

Semple, Charles, and Mike A Steel. Phylogenetics. Vol. 24. Oxford University Press, 2003.

Silva, Georgette, and Harold Love. “The Identification of Text Variants by Computer.” Information Storage and Retrieval 5, no. 3 (1969): 89–108.

Spencer, Matthew, and Christopher Howe. “Article: Collating Texts Using Progressive Multiple Alignment.” Computers and the Humanities 38, no. 3 (2004): 253–270.

Spencer, Matthew, Barbara Bordalejo, Peter Robinson, and Christopher J Howe. “How Reliable Is a Stemma? An Analysis of Chaucer’s Miller’s Tale.” Literary and Linguistic Computing 18, no. 4 (2003): 407–422.

Spencer, Matthew, Elizabeth A Davidson, Adrian C Barbrook, and Christopher J Howe. “Phylogenetics of Artificial Manuscripts.” Journal of Theoretical Biology 227, no. 4 (2004): 503–511.

Spencer, Matthew, L Mooney, A Barbrook, Barbara Bordalejo, Christopher J Howe, and Peter Robinson. “The Effects of Weighting Kinds of Variants.” Studies in Stemmatology II 2 (2004): 227.

Spencer, Matthew, Klaus Wachtel, and Christoper J Howe. “The Greek Vorlage of the Syra Harclensis: A Comparative Study on Method in Exploring Textual Genealogy.” TC: A Journal of Biblical Textual Criticism 7 (2002): 8–2.

Spencer, Matthew, Klaus Wachtel, and Christopher J Howe. “Representing Multiple Pathways of Textual Flow in the Greek Manuscripts of the Letter of James Using Reduced Median Networks.” Computers and the Humanities 38, no. 1 (2004): 1–14.

Strimmer, Korbinian, and Arndt Von Haeseler. “Likelihood-Mapping: A Simple Method to Visualize Phylogenetic Content of a Sequence Alignment.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 94, no. 13 (1997): 6815–6819.

Timpanaro, Sebastiano. The Genesis of Lachmann’s Method. Translated by Glenn Most. University of Chicago Press, 2005.

Timpanaro, Sebastiano, and Kate Soper. The Freudian Slip: Psychoanalysis and Textual Criticism. Translated by Kate Soper. NLB London, 1976.

Trovato, Paolo. Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Lachmann’s Method. Libreriauniversitaria. it edizioni, 2014.

Van Reenen, Pieter, August den Hollander, and Margot van Mulken. Studies in Stemmatology Ii. John Benjamins Publishing, 2004.

Vogtmann, KAREN. “Geodesics in the Space of Trees,” 2007.

Wattel, E. “Constructing Initial Binary Trees in Stemmatology.” Studies in Stemmatology II 2 (2004): 145.

West, Martin L. Textual Criticism and Editorial Technique. Springer, 1973.

Windram, Heather F, Prue Shaw, Peter Robinson, and Christopher J Howe. “Dante’s Monarchia as a Test Case for the Use of Phylogenetic Methods in Stemmatic Analysis.” Literary and Linguistic Computing 23, no. 4 (2008): 443–463.